Personaje religioase și cărturari

Mahatma Gandhi | Biografie, realizări și fapte

Mahatma Gandhi , pe numele lui Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , (născut la 2 octombrie 1869, Porbandar, India - decedat la 30 ianuarie 1948, Delhi),Avocat, politician, activist social și scriitor indian care a devenit liderul mișcării naționaliste împotriva stăpânirii britanice a Indiei . Ca atare, a ajuns să fie considerat tatăl țării sale . Gandhi este apreciat la nivel internațional pentru doctrina sa despreprotest nonviolent ( satyagraha ) pentru a atinge progresul politic și social.

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În ochii a milioane de colegi indieni, Gandhi era Mahatma („Marele Suflet”). Adorația de neimaginat a mulțimilor uriașe care s-au adunat pentru a-l vedea pe tot parcursul traseului turneelor ​​sale le-a făcut un calvar sever; cu greu putea să lucreze ziua sau să se odihnească noaptea. „Vaiul mahatmelor”, a scris el, „sunt cunoscute doar de mahatmi”. Faima sa s-a răspândit în întreaga lume în timpul vieții sale și a crescut abia după moartea sa. Numele Mahatma Gandhi este acum unul dintre cele mai recunoscute universal de pe pământ.

Tineret

Gandhi was the youngest child of his father’s fourth wife. His father—Karamchand Gandhi, who was the dewan (chief minister) of Porbandar, the capital of a small principality in western India (in what is now Gujarat state) under British suzerainty—did not have much in the way of a formal education. He was, however, an able administrator who knew how to steer his way between the capricious princes, their long-suffering subjects, and the headstrong British political officers in power.

Gandhi’s mother, Putlibai, was completely absorbed in religion, did not care much for finery or jewelry, divided her time between her home and the temple, fasted frequently, and wore herself out in days and nights of nursing whenever there was sickness in the family. Mohandas grew up in a home steeped in Vaishnavism—worship of the Hindu god Vishnu—with a strong tinge of Jainism, a morally rigorous Indian religion whose chief tenets are nonviolence and the belief that everything in the universe is eternal. Thus, he took for granted ahimsa (non-prejudiciu tuturor ființelor vii), vegetarianism , post pentru auto-purificare și toleranță reciprocă între adepții diferitelor crezuri și secte.

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The educational facilities at Porbandar were rudimentary; in the primary school that Mohandas attended, the children wrote the alphabet in the dust with their fingers. Luckily for him, his father became dewan of Rajkot, another princely state. Though Mohandas occasionally won prizes and scholarships at the local schools, his record was on the whole mediocre. One of the terminal reports rated him as “good at English, fair in Arithmetic and weak in Geography; conduct very good, bad handwriting.” He was married at the age of 13 and thus lost a year at school. A diffident child, he shone neither in the classroom nor on the playing field. He loved to go out on long solitary walks when he was not nursing his by then ailing father (who died soon thereafter) or helping his mother with her household chores.

He had learned, in his words, “to carry out the orders of the elders, not to scan them.” With such extreme passivity, it is not surprising that he should have gone through a phase of adolescent rebellion, marked by secret atheism, petty thefts, furtive smoking, and—most shocking of all for a boy born in a Vaishnava family—meat eating. His adolescence was probably no stormier than that of most children of his age and class. What was extraordinary was the way his youthful transgressions ended.

„Niciodată niciodată” nu i-a fost promisiunea lui după fiecare escapadă. Și și-a ținut promisiunea. Sub un exterior neprezentat, el ascundea o pasiune arzătoare pentru autoperfecționare care l-a determinat să ia chiar și eroii mitologiei hinduse, precumPrahlada șiHarishcandra - întruchipări legendare ale veridicității și sacrificiului - ca modele vii.

În 1887 Mohandas a examinat examenul de înmatriculare al Universității din Bombay (acum Universitatea din Mumbai ) și s-a alăturat colegiului Samaldas din Bhavnagar (Bhaunagar). Întrucât a trebuit să treacă brusc de la limba maternă - gujarati - la engleză, i s-a părut destul de dificil să urmeze cursurile.

Meanwhile, his family was debating his future. Left to himself, he would have liked to have been a doctor. But, besides the Vaishnava prejudice against vivisection, it was clear that, if he was to keep up the family tradition of holding high office in one of the states in Gujarat, he would have to qualify as a barrister. That meant a visit to England, and Mohandas, who was not too happy at Samaldas College, jumped at the proposal. His youthful imagination conceived England as “a land of philosophers and poets, the very centre of civilization.” But there were several hurdles to be crossed before the visit to England could be realized. His father had left the family little property; moreover, his mother was reluctant to expose her youngest child to unknown temptations and dangers in a distant land. But Mohandas was determined to visit England. One of his brothers raised the necessary money, and his mother’s doubts were allayed when he took a vow that, while away from home, he would not touch wine, women, or meat. Mohandas disregarded the last obstacle—the decree of the leaders of the Modh Bania subcaste (Vaishya caste), to which the Gandhis belonged, who forbade his trip to England as a violation of the Hindu religion—and sailed in September 1888. Ten days after his arrival, he joined the Inner Temple, one of the four London law colleges (The Temple).