Musik, Klassik

Johannes Brahms | Biografie, Musik & Fakten

Johannes Brahms (* 7. Mai 1833 in Hamburg, † 3. April 1897 in Wien , Österreich-Ungarn [jetzt in Österreich]), deutscher Komponist und Pianist der Romantik , schrieb Symphonien , Konzerte und Kammermusik , Klavierwerke, Chorzusammensetzungen , und mehr als 200 Songs . Brahms war in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts der große Meister des Symphonie- und Sonatenstils . Er kann als Protagonist der klassischen Tradition von Joseph Haydn angesehen werden , Mozart und Beethoven in einer Zeit, in der die Romantiker die Standards dieser Tradition in Frage stellten oder auf den Kopf stellten .

Top Fragen

Warum ist Johannes Brahms wichtig?

Wofür ist Johannes Brahms berühmt?

Wie war Johannes Brahms 'Familie?

Wie wurde Johannes Brahms berühmt?

Wie ist Johannes Brahms gestorben?

Der junge Pianist und Musikdirektor

Johannes, der Sohn von Jakob Brahms, einem unbestimmten Horn- und Kontrabassisten , zeigte als Pianist schon früh vielversprechende Ergebnisse . Er studierte zunächst Musik bei seinem Vater und wurde im Alter von sieben Jahren zum Klavierunterricht an FW Cossel geschickt, der ihn drei Jahre später an seinen eigenen Lehrer Eduard Marxsen weitergab. Zwischen 14 und 16 Jahren verdiente Brahms Geld, um seiner Familie zu helfen, indem er in rauen Gasthäusern im Hamburger Hafenviertel spielte und in der Zwischenzeit Konzerte komponierte und manchmal gab. 1850 traf er sichEduard Reményi, ein jüdischer ungarischer Geiger, mit dem er Konzerte gab und von dem er etwas über Roma-Musik lernte - ein Einfluss, der ihm immer erhalten blieb.

Der erste Wendepunkt kam 1853, als er das traf Violine VirtuoseJoseph Joachim , der sofort das Talent von Brahms erkannte. Joachim wiederum empfahl dem Komponisten BrahmsRobert Schumann und eine unmittelbare Freundschaft zwischen den beiden Komponisten resultierten. Schumann schrieb begeistert über Brahms in der Zeitschrift Neue Zeitschrift für Musik und lobte seine Kompositionen. Der Artikel sorgte für Aufsehen. Von diesem Moment an war Brahms eine Kraft in der Welt der Musik, obwohl es immer Faktoren gab, die ihm Schwierigkeiten bereiteten.

The chief of these was the nature of Schumann’s panegyric itself. There was already conflict between the “neo-German” school, dominated by Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner, and the more conservative elements, whose main spokesman was Schumann. The latter’s praise of Brahms displeased the former, and Brahms himself, though kindly received by Liszt, did not conceal his lack of sympathy with the self-conscious modernists. He was therefore drawn into controversy, and most of the disturbances in his otherwise uneventful personal life arose from this situation. Gradually Brahms came to be on close terms with the Schumann household, and, when Schumann was first taken mentally ill in 1854, Brahms assisted Clara Schumann in managing her family. He appears to have fallen in love with her; but, though they remained deep friends after Schumann’s death in 1856, their relationship did not, it seems, go further.

Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today

The nearest Brahms ever came to marriage was in his affair with Agathe von Siebold in 1858; from this he recoiled suddenly, and he was never thereafter seriously involved in the prospect. The reasons for this are unclear, but probably his immense reserve and his inability to express emotions in any other way but musically were responsible, and he no doubt was aware that his natural irascibility and resentment of sympathy would have made him an impossible husband. He wrote in a letter, “I couldn’t bear to have in the house a woman who has the right to be kind to me, to comfort me when things go wrong.” All this, together with his intense love of children and animals, goes some way to explain certain aspects of his music, its concentrated inner reserve that hides and sometimes dams powerful currents of feeling.

Between 1857 and 1860 Brahms moved between the court of Detmold—where he taught the piano and conducted a choral society—and Göttingen, while in 1859 he was appointed conductor of a women’s choir in Hamburg. Such posts provided valuable practical experience and left him enough time for his own work. At this point Brahms’s productivity increased, and, apart from the two delightful Serenades for orchestra and the colourful first String Sextet in B-flat Major (1858–60), he also completed his turbulent Piano Concerto No. 1 in D Minor (1854–58).

By 1861 he was back in Hamburg, and in the following year he made his first visit to Vienna, with some success. Having failed to secure the post of conductor of the Hamburg Philharmonic concerts, he settled in Vienna in 1863, assuming direction of the Singakademie, a fine choral society. His life there was on the whole regular and quiet, disturbed only by the ups and downs of his musical success, by altercations occasioned by his own quick temper and by the often virulent rivalry between his supporters and those of Wagner and Anton Bruckner, and by one or two inconclusive love affairs. His music, despite a few failures and constant attacks by the Wagnerites, was established, and his reputation grew steadily. By 1872 he was principal conductor of the Society of Friends of Music (Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde), and for three seasons he directed the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. His choice of music was not as conservative as might have been expected, and though the “Brahmins” continued their war against Wagner, Brahms himself always spoke of his rival with respect. Brahms is sometimes portrayed as unsympathetic toward his contemporaries. His kindness to Antonín Dvořák is always acknowledged, but his encouragement even of such a composer as the young Gustav Mahler is not always realized, and his enthusiasm for Carl Nielsen’s First Symphony is not generally known.

In between these two appointments in Vienna, Brahms’s work flourished and some of his most significant works were composed. The year 1868 witnessed the completion of his most famous choral work, Ein deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem), which had occupied him since Schumann’s death. This work, based on biblical texts selected by the composer, made a strong impact at its first performance at Bremen on Good Friday, 1868; after this, it was performed throughout Germany. With the Requiem, which is still considered one of the most significant works of 19th-century choral music, Brahms moved into the front rank of German composers.

Brahms schrieb auch erfolgreiche Werke in einer leichteren Art und Weise. 1869 bot er zwei Bände anUngarische Tänze für Klavierduett; Dies waren brillante Arrangements von Roma- Melodien, die er im Laufe der Jahre gesammelt hatte. Ihr Erfolg war phänomenal und sie wurden auf der ganzen Welt gespielt. In den Jahren 1868 bis 1869 komponierte er seineLiebeslieder ( Love Songs ) Walzer, für Vokalquartett und vierhändige Klavierbegleitung-a mit Humor und Einbeziehung anmutig Wiener Tanzweisen funkelnde Arbeit. Zu dieser Zeit wurden auch einige seiner größten Songs geschrieben.