Premierminister

Jawaharlal Nehru | Biografie, Bedeutung und Fakten

Jawaharlal Nehru , Name Pandit (Hindi: „Pundit“ oder „Lehrer“) Nehru (* 14. November 1889 in Allahabad , Indien ; * 27. Mai 1964 in Neu-Delhi), erster unabhängiger PremierministerIndien (1947–64), das eine parlamentarische Regierung gründete und für seine neutralistische (nicht ausgerichtete) Außenpolitik bekannt wurde. In den 1930er und 40er Jahren war er auch einer der wichtigsten Führer der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung.

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Frühe Jahre

Nehru wurde in eine Familie von Kashmiri Brahmans geboren , die für ihre administrative Eignung und Gelehrsamkeit bekannt war und Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts nach Delhi ausgewandert war . Er war ein Sohn von Motilal Nehru , einem renommierten Anwalt und Führer der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung, der einer von ihnen wurdeDie prominenten Mitarbeiter von Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi . Jawaharlal war das älteste von vier Kindern, von denen zwei Mädchen waren. Eine Schwester, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit , wurde später die erste Präsidentin der Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen .

Bis zum Alter von 16 Jahren wurde Nehru zu Hause von einer Reihe englischer Gouvernanten und Tutoren unterrichtet. Nur einer von ihnen - ein teils irischer, teils belgischer Theosoph, Ferdinand Brooks - scheint ihn beeindruckt zu haben. Jawaharlal hatte auch einen ehrwürdigen indischen Tutor, der ihm Hindi und Sanskrit beibrachte. 1905 besuchte er Harrow , eine führende englische Schule, wo er zwei Jahre blieb. Nehrus akademische Karriere war keineswegs herausragend. Von Harrow ging er zum Trinity College in Cambridge , wo er drei Jahre lang einen Abschluss in Naturwissenschaften machte. Als er Cambridge verließ, qualifizierte er sich nach zwei Jahren im Inner Temple in London als Rechtsanwalt , wo er nach seinen eigenen Worten seine Prüfungen „weder mit Ruhm noch mit Schmach“ bestand.

Die sieben Jahre, die Nehru in England verbrachte, ließen ihn in einer dunstigen Halbwelt zurück, weder in England noch in Indien. Einige Jahre später schrieb er: "Ich bin eine seltsame Mischung aus Ost und West geworden, überall fehl am Platz, nirgendwo zu Hause." Er ging zurück nach Indien, um Indien zu entdecken. Die konkurrierenden Züge und Belastungen, die seine Auslandserfahrung auf seine Persönlichkeit ausüben sollte, wurden nie vollständig gelöst.

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Vier Jahre nach seiner Rückkehr nach Indien heiratete Nehru im März 1916 Kamala Kaul, die ebenfalls aus einer Kashmiri-Familie stammte, die sich in Delhi niedergelassen hatte. Ihr einziges Kind, Indira Priyadarshini, wurde 1917 geboren; Sie würde später (unter ihrem verheirateten Namen Indira Gandhi ) auch (1966–77 und 1980–84) als indische Premierministerin dienen. Darüber hinaus trat Indiras Sohn Rajiv Gandhi die Nachfolge seiner Mutter als Premierminister an (1984–89).

Politische Lehre

On his return to India, Nehru at first had tried to settle down as a lawyer. Unlike his father, however, he had only a desultory interest in his profession and did not relish either the practice of law or the company of lawyers. For that time he might be described, like many of his generation, as an instinctive nationalist who yearned for his country’s freedom, but, like most of his contemporaries, he had not formulated any precise ideas on how it could be achieved.

Nehru’s autobiography discloses his lively interest in Indian politics during the time he was studying abroad. His letters to his father over the same period reveal their common interest in India’s freedom. But not until father and son met Mahatma Gandhi and were persuaded to follow in his political footsteps did either of them develop any definite ideas on how freedom was to be attained. The quality in Gandhi that impressed the two Nehrus was his insistence on action. A wrong, Gandhi argued, should not only be condemned but be resisted. Earlier, Nehru and his father had been contemptuous of the run of contemporary Indian politicians, whose nationalism, with a few notable exceptions, consisted of interminable speeches and long-winded resolutions. Jawaharlal was also attracted by Gandhi’s insistence on fighting against British rule of India without fear or hate.

Nehru met Gandhi for the first time in 1916 at the annual meeting of the Indian National Congress (Congress Party) in Lucknow. Gandhi was 20 years his senior. Neither seems to have made any initially strong impression on the other. Gandhi makes no mention of Nehru in an autobiography he dictated while imprisoned in the early 1920s. The omission is understandable, since Nehru’s role in Indian politics was secondary until he was elected president of the Congress Party in 1929, when he presided over the historic session at Lahore (now in Pakistan) that proclaimed complete independence as India’s political goal. Until then the party’s objective had been dominion status.

Nehru’s close association with the Congress Party dates from 1919 in the immediate aftermath of World War I. That period saw an early wave of nationalist activity and governmental repression, which culminated in the Massacre of Amritsar in April 1919; according to an official report, 379 persons were killed (though other estimates were considerably higher), and at least 1,200 were wounded when the local British military commander ordered his troops to fire on a crowd of unarmed Indians assembled in an almost completely enclosed space in the city.

When, late in 1921, the prominent leaders and workers of the Congress Party were outlawed in some provinces, Nehru went to prison for the first time. Over the next 24 years he was to serve another eight periods of detention, the last and longest ending in June 1945, after an imprisonment of almost three years. In all, Nehru spent more than nine years in jail. Characteristically, he described his terms of incarceration as normal interludes in a life of abnormal political activity.

His political apprenticeship with the Congress Party lasted from 1919 to 1929. In 1923 he became general secretary of the party for two years, and he did so again in 1927 for another two years. His interests and duties took him on journeys over wide areas of India, particularly in his native United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh state), where his first exposure to the overwhelming poverty and degradation of the peasantry had a profound influence on his basic ideas for solving those vital problems. Though vaguely inclined toward socialism, Nehru’s radicalism had set in no definite mold. The watershed in his political and economic thinking was his tour of Europe and the Soviet Union during 1926–27. Nehru’s real interest in Marxism and his socialist pattern of thought stemmed from that tour, even though it did not appreciably increase his knowledge of communist theory and practice. His subsequent sojourns in prison enabled him to study Marxism in more depth. Interested in its ideas but repelled by some of its methods—such as the regimentation and the heresy hunts of the communists—he could never bring himself to accept Karl Marx’s writings as revealed scripture. Yet from then on, the yardstick of his economic thinking remained Marxist, adjusted, where necessary, to Indian conditions.