Königinnen

Elizabeth II | Biografie, Familie, Herrschaft & Fakten

Elizabeth II. , Vollständig Elizabeth Alexandra Mary , offiziell Elizabeth II., Durch die Gnade Gottes, des Vereinigten Königreichs Großbritannien und Nordirland und ihrer anderen Reiche und Territorien Königin, Leiterin des Commonwealth, Verteidigerin des Glaubens (geboren) 21. April 1926, London, England), Königin des Vereinigten Königreiches von Großbritannien und Nordirland vom 6. Februar 1952. im Jahr 2015 sie übertroffen Victoria der am längsten regierende Monarch in der britischen Geschichte zu werden.

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Frühen Lebensjahren

Elizabeth war die ältere Tochter von Prinz Albert, Herzog von York , und seiner Frau Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon . Als Kind eines jüngeren Sohnes von König George V. hatte die junge Elizabeth wenig Aussicht auf den Thron, bis ihr Onkel Edward VIII. (Später Herzog von Windsor) am 11. Dezember 1936 zu Gunsten ihres Vaters abdankte Ihr Vater wurde KönigGeorge VI und sie wurden mutmaßliche Erben. Die Ausbildung der Prinzessin wurde von ihrer Mutter überwacht, die ihre Töchter einer Gouvernante, Marion Crawford, anvertraute; Die Prinzessin wurde auch von CHK Marten, dem späteren Provost des Eton College , in der Geschichte begründet und erhielt Unterricht von Gastlehrern in Musik und Sprachen. Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs verbrachten sie und ihre Schwester, Prinzessin Margaret Rose, einen Großteil ihrer Zeit sicher außerhalb des Londoner Blitzes und trennten sich von ihren Eltern. Sie lebten hauptsächlich im Balmoral Castle in Schottland und in der Royal Lodge, Windsor und Windsor Castle .

Anfang 1947 ging Prinzessin Elizabeth mit dem König und der Königin nach Südafrika . Nach ihrer Rückkehr gab es eine Ankündigung ihrer Verlobung mit ihrem entfernten Cousin LieutenantPhilip Mountbatten von der Royal Navy , ehemals Prinz Philip von Griechenland und Dänemark . Die Hochzeit fand am 20. November 1947 in der Westminster Abbey statt . Am Vorabend der Hochzeit verlieh ihr Vater, der König, dem Bräutigam die Titel des Herzogs von Edinburgh, des Grafen von Merioneth, und des Barons Greenwich. Sie wohnten im Clarence House in London . Ihr erstes Kind, Prinz Charles (Charles Philip Arthur George), wurde am 14. November 1948 im Buckingham Palace geboren .

Thronbesteigung

In the summer of 1951 the health of King George VI entered into a serious decline, and Princess Elizabeth represented him at the Trooping the Colour and on various other state occasions. On October 7 she and her husband set out on a highly successful tour of Canada and Washington, D.C. After Christmas in England she and the duke set out in January 1952 for a tour of Australia and New Zealand, but en route, at Sagana, Kenya, news reached them of the king’s death on February 6, 1952. Elizabeth, now queen, at once flew back to England. The first three months of her reign, the period of full mourning for her father, were passed in comparative seclusion. But in the summer, after she had moved from Clarence House to Buckingham Palace, she undertook the routine duties of the sovereign and carried out her first state opening of Parliament on November 4, 1952. Her coronation was held at Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953.

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Beginning in November 1953 the queen and the duke of Edinburgh made a six-month round-the-world tour of the Commonwealth, which included the first visit to Australia and New Zealand by a reigning British monarch. In 1957, after state visits to various European nations, she and the duke visited Canada and the United States. In 1961 she made the first royal British tour of the Indian subcontinent in 50 years, and she was also the first reigning British monarch to visit South America (in 1968) and the Persian Gulf countries (in 1979). During her “Silver Jubilee” in 1977, she presided at a London banquet attended by the leaders of the 36 members of the Commonwealth, traveled all over Britain and Northern Ireland, and toured overseas in the South Pacific and Australia, in Canada, and in the Caribbean.

On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, her son Prince Charles became heir apparent; he was named prince of Wales on July 26, 1958, and was so invested on July 1, 1969. The queen’s other children were Princess Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), born August 15, 1950, and created princess royal in 1987; Prince Andrew (Andrew Albert Christian Edward), born February 19, 1960, and created duke of York in 1986; and Prince Edward (Edward Anthony Richard Louis), born March 10, 1964, and created earl of Wessex and Viscount Severn in 1999. All these children have the surname “of Windsor,” but in 1960 Elizabeth decided to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for other descendants not styled prince or princess and royal highness. Elizabeth’s first grandchild (Princess Anne’s son) was born on November 15, 1977.

The modern monarchy

The queen seemed increasingly aware of the modern role of the monarchy, allowing, for example, the televising of the royal family’s domestic life in 1970 and condoning the formal dissolution of her sister’s marriage in 1978. In the 1990s, however, the royal family faced a number of challenges. In 1992, a year that Elizabeth referred to as the royal family’s annus horribilis, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, princess of Wales, separated, as did Prince Andrew and his wife, Sarah, duchess of York. Moreover, Anne divorced, and a fire gutted the royal residence of Windsor Castle. In addition, as the country struggled with a recession, resentment over the royals’ lifestyle mounted, and in 1992 Elizabeth, although personally exempt, agreed to pay taxes on her private income. The separation and later divorce (1996) of Charles and the immensely popular Diana further eroded support for the royal family, which was viewed by some as antiquated and unfeeling. The criticism intensified following Diana’s death in 1997, especially after Elizabeth initially refused to allow the national flag to fly at half-staff over Buckingham Palace. In line with her earlier attempts at modernizing the monarchy, the queen subsequently sought to present a less-stuffy and less-traditional image of the monarchy. These attempts were met with mixed success.

In 2002 Elizabeth celebrated her 50th year on the throne. As part of her “Golden Jubilee,” events were held throughout the Commonwealth, including several days of festivities in London. The celebrations were somewhat diminished by the deaths of Elizabeth’s mother and sister early in the year. Beginning in the latter part of the first decade of the 21st century, the public standing of the royal family rebounded, and even Charles’s 2005 marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles found much support among the British people. In April 2011 Elizabeth led the family in celebrating the wedding of Prince William of Wales—the elder son of Charles and Diana—and Catherine Middleton. The following month she surpassed George III to become the second longest-reigning monarch in British history, behind Victoria. Also in May, Elizabeth made a historic trip to Ireland, becoming both the first British monarch to visit the Irish republic and the first to set foot in Ireland since 1911. In 2012 Elizabeth celebrated her “Diamond Jubilee,” marking 60 years on the throne. On September 9, 2015, she surpassed Victoria’s record reign of 63 years and 216 days.

Es ist bekannt, dass Elizabeth die Einfachheit des Gerichtslebens bevorzugt und neben den traditionellen und zeremoniellen Pflichten auch ein ernstes und informiertes Interesse an Regierungsgeschäften zeigt . Privat wurde sie eine begeisterte Reiterin; Sie hält Rennpferde, nimmt häufig an Rennen teil und besucht regelmäßig die Gestüte in Kentucky in den USA. Ihre finanziellen und Vermögensbestände haben sie zu einer der reichsten Frauen der Welt gemacht.